Oil refining Processing is the process of converting crude oil into various usable oil products such as gasoline, diesel, lubricants and fuel oil, while processing other products such as residues such as coke, asphalt, bitumen and wax.
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Advantages of using oil as fuel
1) Easy to transport
2) Easy to buy
3) It is a fuel that has not been opposed by the community.
Limitation of using oil as fuel
1) Must be imported from abroad
2) The price is not stable depending on the world oil price.
3) It causes greenhouse gasses which cause global warming.
4) Electricity produced has a high cost per unit.
pumping up crude oil will cause the land to subside or not
Pumping up crude oil will not cause land subsidence problems. Because the crude oil is in the porosity between the grains of sand. Or a small crack in the solid rock at a depth of more than 1,000 – 8,000 meters, not a hole or an underground basin as many people understand. The hard rock layer has a very strong structure because it has to bear the pressure of more than 8,000 – 7,800 trees per square meter. In the production of crude oil Approximately 10 – 15% of the amount of crude oil accumulated in the reservoir will be able to pump up crude oil only due to the resistance from the viscosity of the crude oil and the natural surface tension at the same time. Water infiltrating the shale will seep in to replace crude oil. The hard rock is a strong sloping structure that does not cause land subsidence from petroleum production. This is different from the case of groundwater, which is in the shallow sand layer (50 – 200 m) that has not frozen. when the groundwater is pumped up to use too much And more than the infiltration rate of water to replace the gaps of sand grains in the groundwater layer, causing the compaction of the sand layer and resulting in land subsidence in the area.
2.6 Converting plastics and tires into oil
Plastic is made from ethylene gas obtained from natural gas separation processes. or derived from crude oil refining process So the origin of plastic is petroleum. Therefore, there must be some process to make the plastic. can return to its original origin, “petroleum”.
A process that converts plastic back to petroleum. Here’s how:
1) Melting plastic with high heat (Temperature about 400 degrees Celsius), the plastic will become liquid.
2) Pass it to process 2 to break the polymer structure of the plastic. It is a smaller molecule. and lose its plasticity But it looks like crude oil.
3) The crude oil-like liquid will evaporate into steam, the oil will rise to the condenser and will be condensed into oil. and combustible gas
4) The combustible gas is again used as fuel for the reactor.
2.7 Natural gas
Natural gas is a hydrocarbon compound. Like oil or LPG gas, Elemental carbon (C) and elemental hydrogen (H) bind together to form molecules. by naturally occurring
During the crude oil glut, natural gas used to be unneeded by humans. But nowadays, natural gas is an important fuel, not less than oil. Natural gas is often found in the same places as crude oil and will be brought up simultaneously
Natural gas is a hydrocarbon. the same with crude oil Because it is caused by deposition, metamorphosis. Of the remains of animal remains for millions of years as well. There is nitrogen gas. Carbon dioxide Including hydrogen sulfide, it is also classified as a fossil fuel like coal and oil. The components can be lifted as methane, ethane, propane, butane, pentane, etc. If propane and butane are separated into a gas tank, it is called liquefied petroleum gas or cooking gas. Natural is a very safe fuel, colorless, odorless. When burned, it burns more completely than other fuels, so it is classified as clean fuel. because it affects the environment very little when compared to fuel oil and cooking gas For this reason, many countries prefer to use natural gas.
During the past 100 years, natural gas has played a greater role in every aspect of the world’s development, especially as a replacement for coal and oil. Due to its properties that are different from other petroleum fuels, natural gas It is increasingly recognized as the fuel of choice for the world today and in the future.
Thailand began producing natural gas in 1981 from the Erawan field. But at present, there are many more important natural gas sources such as the Bongkot, JDA, Arthit and Pailin fields. In 2011, natural gas production in the country was at 3,581 million cubic feet per day. Accounting for 80 percent and the remaining 20 percent is imported from abroad, divided into imports from Myanmar at 830 million cubic feet per day and LNG imports at 98 million cubic feet per day. The total supply is 4,509 million cubic meters per day. Thailand started importing LNG for the first time in May 2011.